Mathilde, this sounds terribly stressful -- I'm so sorry you and your baby are going through this difficult time.
It sounds to me like more than nipple preference is going on -- I would call it a nursing strike, I think. The baby needs time and help to learn again to have a positive association with the breast.
I think Sarah's idea of warm baths with your husband right there to help you is a very good idea. You can also wear the baby skin-to-skin right inside your shirt all day, and sleep that way at night -- baby in a diaper, snuggled up between your breasts, or on the bed next to you, cuddled under your arm.
The skin-to-skin contact will release a lot of the right hormones in both you and baby, and should help with your milk supply even if he is not nursing at all. If attempts to breastfeed are upsetting and stressful for both of you, then spend a few days exclusively pumping, and give him his bottles while you hold him skin-to-skin near your breasts. You can keep him fed and soothed, keep your supply up with pumping, and focus the rest of your energy on your own rest and nutrition and emotional care.
Then when it feels right, just casually offer the breast, as a learning opportunity, with no particular goal or deadline. Many babies come out of similar nursing strikes, either suddenly or gradually, so don't give up hope!
Good luck and let us know how you are doing.